The Correct Terminology: Age/gender

ArticleHow to - General Equine AdviceTuesday 27 November 2012

There are many different names for each type of horse which you may not be familiar with. We don’t mean the breed, but the names for whether it is an adult female, or a baby male. You will see words such as gelding and yearling across the site describing the gender. If these terms are unknown or fuzzy to you, we want to clear them up to make sure that you read a horses information correctly.

There are many terms across all ages and genders, and it can get confusing so we want to lay it out clearly and exact.


  • Foal – Male or female horse, under the age of one (can be either gelded or not gelded).
  • Colt – Male horse, under the age of 4
  • Filly – Female horse, under the age of 4
  • Yearling – A horse that is 1 year old (all the way up to it’s second birthday)
  • Weanling – A horse that is less than a year old
  • Juvenile – A horse that is 2 years old, also can be called a baby
  • Sophomore – A horse that is 3 years old
  • Mare – Female horse, over the age of 4
  • Stallion – Adult male horse
  • (Full) horse – Adult male horse
  • Gelding – A castrated Stallion
  • Brood Mare – A mare that is kept for breeding
  • Stud – Stallion used for breeding
  • Sire – If a stud produces offspring, the male horse will be referred to as a Sire in this context
  • Dam - If a mare produces offspring, the female horse will be referred to as a dam in this context
  • Get – An offspring from a Stallion
  • Rig/Ridgling – A stallion or colt that has not been castrated
  • Aged – this term can be used to describe a horse of over 15 years of age


If you have any more queries or requests for Horse Terminology, please comment below. 


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